|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 173-180
Emergency nurses’ attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration and teamwork and their affecting factors: A cross-sectional study
Sanaz Rezaei1, Fariborz Roshangar1, Azad Rahmani1, Faranak Jabbarzadeh Tabrizi1, Parvin Sarbakhsh2, Kobra Parvan1
1 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||23-Jul-2021|
Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The emergency department (ED) is a multidisciplinary department and seriously needs interprofessional collaboration (IPC). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the emergency nurses’ attitudes toward IPC and teamwork and their affecting factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 138 emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, from January to April 2019. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire including a demographic data sheet, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, and the Testing Team Attitude Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, analysis of variance, and multivariate regression analysis. Results: The majority of the study participants were female (68.1%), in the age range of 30–40 years old (44.2%), and had a working experience of 1–5 years in the ED (63.8%). The mean scores of nurses’ attitudes toward IPC and teamwork were 48.68 ± 5.14 and 96.15 ± 8.97, respectively. A direct and strong correlation was found between nurses’ attitudes toward IPC and teamwork (r = 0.594, P = 0.001). Regression analysis showed that, among all variables, only the participants’ employment status (compulsory governmental services, P < 0.031 and B = 2.356), overall work experience between 1 and 5 years (P < 0.001 and B = -3.769), and the attitude toward teamwork (P < 0.001 and B = 0.350) could significantly predict nurses’ attitude toward IPC. Conclusion: The attitudes of emergency nurses toward IPC and teamwork were at an optimal level. Nurses’ belief in IPC and especially belief in nurse–physician collaboration plays an important role in providing quality care and keeping patient safety in ED. Joint in-service workshops on the philosophy and principles of IPC and teamwork for nurses and physicians working in EDs can further strengthen the IPC.
Keywords: Attitude, Emergency nurse, Health care, Interprofessional collaboration, Teamwork
|How to cite this article:|
Rezaei S, Roshangar F, Rahmani A, Tabrizi FJ, Sarbakhsh P, Parvan K. Emergency nurses’ attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration and teamwork and their affecting factors: A cross-sectional study. Nurs Midwifery Stud 2021;10:173-80
|How to cite this URL:|
Rezaei S, Roshangar F, Rahmani A, Tabrizi FJ, Sarbakhsh P, Parvan K. Emergency nurses’ attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration and teamwork and their affecting factors: A cross-sectional study. Nurs Midwifery Stud [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Dec 1];10:173-80. Available from: https://www.nmsjournal.com/text.asp?2021/10/3/173/322229
| Introduction|| |
Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) refers to the interaction of a number of professionals with specific, yet interdependent responsibilities. This process is of paramount importance in the emergency department (ED) due to the critical work environment, the large number of staff, and the complexity of the work. Appropriate IPC can promote health-care quality, improve patient care, enhance job satisfaction of personnel, and develop holistic health care,, whereas weak IPC is associated with increased medical errors, decreased patient safety,, decreased quality of health care, and prolonged hospitalization.,,
Teamwork has also been defined as “cooperative or coordinated efforts on the part of a group of persons acting together as a team or in the interests of a common cause.” Both teamwork and IPC require a group of people working together to achieve a common goal. The main distinction between teamwork and IPC is that teamwork combines the individual efforts of team members to achieve a goal, but professionals who work collaboratively complete a project collectively. People who collaborate work together as equals, usually without a leader, to finish a project or make decisions together to achieve a goal. However, teamwork is usually supervised by a leader, and those within a team are assigned individual tasks to complete to contribute toward the team’s end goal. Although the interaction is an important feature both in teamwork and IPC, it seems that maximum interaction occurs in IPC.
Studies showed that teamwork and IPC in the ED can improve the quality of health care and patient safety, reduce clinical errors, shorten patient waiting times, and solve staff shortages., On the other hand, noncooperation and poor teamwork would result in overlapping tasks, waste of time, and resources in emergency situations and endanger the lives of patients.
Intra- and IPC necessitates having common and measurable goals, collaboration and mutual understanding, believe in the principle of teamwork, and the ability to establish effective solidarity among team members. On the other hand, it can be threatened by many factors such as noninteractive and authoritative relationships, especially by physicians.
Despite the importance of IPC in providing health services – especially in EDs – contradictory results were reported on the nurses’ attitudes toward IPC. For example, studies in Illinois, United States (US), and South Africa showed that nurses have positive attitudes toward the IPC. However, in two studies in the United Kingdom and Ireland, nurses reported a negative to moderate attitude toward nurse–physician collaboration. Studies in Iran also reported contradictory results in this regard. For instance, a study in teaching hospitals of Tabriz city reported nurses’ positive attitude toward IPC. In another study in Alborz province hospitals, 52% of nurses rated the quality of nurse–physician collaborations as moderate, whereas in a study in East Azerbaijan hospitals, only 13% of nurses rated the quality of nurse–physician collaborations as good.
It has been found that factors such as work experience, gender, cultural differences, workplace, and communication skills affect the desire for IPC. However, despite the global importance of IPC and teamwork, little is known about the effect of attitude toward teamwork and the desire for IPC, especially in emergency situations., Due to the inconsistent results on nurses’ attitudes toward teamwork and IPC,,,, and the lack of adequate studies on emergency nurses and given the importance of nurse–physician collaboration in the ED, the question arises whether the emergency nurses’ attitudes of IPC are favorable? And, whether emergency nurses’ attitudes toward teamwork can influence their collaboration, especially with emergency physicians?
The purpose of this study was to examine the emergency nurses’ attitudes toward IPC and teamwork and their affecting factors.
| Methods|| |
Design and participants
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 138 nurses working in the EDs of teaching hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
The sample size was estimated using the results of a former study, in which the mean score of nurses’ attitude toward IPC was 48.05 ± 5.75. Then, using the formula for estimating the mean of a quantitative variable [Figure 1] and given a confidence level of 95%, a δ of 5.75, a measurement precision (d) of 1, and considering an attrition rate of 10%, a sample of 141 samples was estimated to be needed for the study.
Inclusion criteria were being employed in an ED affiliated to one of the Tabriz teaching medical centers, at least 1 year of work experience in the ED, having a bachelor’s or master’s degree in nursing, and working as a clinical nurse. Exclusion criteria included a participant’s decision to not to complete the questionnaire and failure to respond to more than 20% of items.
The participants were recruited using a Quota convenience sampling method. To this end, with the cooperation of the nursing office in each hospital, lists of nurses with inclusion criteria were prepared. Then, the quota needed in each ED was calculated, and the needed samples were recruited conveniently from those who were willing to participate. The first researcher referred to the EDs in different working shifts to find the eligible and willing participants.
A demographic characteristic questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC), and the Testing Team Attitude Questionnaire (T-TAQ) were used for data collection.
The demographic characteristic questionnaire included questions on nurses’ age, gender, marital status, education level, employment status, type of shift work, overall work experience, years of working in the ED, and work experience in other specialized hospital wards.
The JSAPNC is a 15-item scale designed for measuring both nurse and physician attitudes toward physician–nurse professional collaboration. Items are distributed in four domains: Shared Education and Collaborative Relationships (seven items), Caring as Opposed to Curing (3 items), Nurse’s Autonomy (3 items), and Physician’s Authority (2 items). All items are rated on a four-point Likert scale from 1: “strongly disagree” to 4: “strongly agree.” Items 8 and 10 that are related to the dimension of “physician’s authority” are scored inversely. The total score of the scale could range from 15 to 60, and higher scores indicate a better attitude toward IPC. The validity and the reliability of the Persian translation of the JSAPNC have been assessed by Pakpour et al., and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.87. In the present study, the content validity of this scale was confirmed by ten nursing professors, and its reliability was examined on thirty nurses and confirmed with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.83.
The original T-TAQ is a 30-item scale for measuring individual attitudes related to the core components of teamwork. Items are distributed in five domains of team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Najafi et al. assessed and confirmed the validity and reliability of the Persian translation of the T-TAQ. They removed six items from the mutual support domain and one item from the communication domain due to the acquisition of a Cronbach’s alpha below 0.6. Therefore, the Persian translation of T-TAQ consists of 23 items with an overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.80. All items are rated on a five-point Likert scale from 1: “strongly disagree” to 5: “strongly agree.” The total score of the scale can range from 23 to 115, and higher scores indicate a more positive attitude toward teamwork. In the present study, the content validity of this scale was confirmed by ten nursing faculty members, and its reliability was examined on thirty nurses and confirmed with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87.
This study was a master thesis approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran (ethics approval code: IR.TBZMED.REC.1397.685). The aims of the study were explained to the participants. Participation in the study was voluntary, data were managed confidentially, and findings were reported anonymously. All participants signed written informed consent before participation in the study.
The data were analyzed in SPSS software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The normal distribution of the quantitative variables was evaluated by the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and the distribution of data was normal. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation of the variables. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was utilized to determine the relationship between variables. T-test was used to compare the mean scores of attitude toward IPC and teamwork between two subgroups of the participants. One-way analysis of variance and the Tukey’s post hoc test were used to compare the mean scores of attitudes toward IPC and teamwork between three or more subgroups of the participants. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with IPC. To this end, first, the backward model was conducted with the removal criterion of P > 0.10. Then, all the remaining variables with P < 0.10 were again entered into the model and analyzed using the forward method. Before we performed the multiple regression analysis, the categorical variables were first converted to dummy variables to represent subgroups of the samples. Furthermore, to enter the ordinal variables into the model, we coded them as 0, 1, 2, and so on. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Of the 141 nurses, 138 completed and returned the study questionnaires. The majority of study participants were female (68.1%), in the age range of 30–40 years old (44.2%), and had a working experience of 1–5 years in the ED (63.8%) [Table 1].
|Table 1: Demographic characteristics of nurses participating in the study|
Click here to view
Considering the items of the teamwork scale, the majority of nurses believed that “it is appropriate for team members to offer assistance to their counterparts who may be tired or stressed (93.5%)” and that “leaders should create informal opportunities for team members to share information.” Furthermore, regarding the items of IPC scale, the majority of nurses believed that “nurses should be involved in making policies affecting their working conditions” (94.9%) and “IPC between physicians and nurses should be included in their educational programmers” (94.2%) [Table 2].
|Table 2: The frequency of items of teamwork and interprofessional collaboration scales that nurses were mostly agreed on|
Click here to view
The mean scores of nurses’ attitudes toward IPC and teamwork were 48.68 ± 5.14 and 96.15 ± 8.97, respectively. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test revealed a direct and strong correlation between nurses’ attitudes toward IPC and teamwork (r = 0.594, P = 0.001).
As presented in [Table 3], the mean attitude toward IPC was significantly higher among nurses with the age of 30–40 years (P = 0.016), permanent official employment (P = 0.041), and overall work experience of 6–10 years (P = 0.005). However, none of the participants’ characteristics could significantly affect their attitude toward teamwork.
|Table 3: Comparison of the mean attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration and teamwork based on the nurses characteristics|
Click here to view
Multiple linear regression showed that, among all variables entered into the model, only the participants’ employment status (compulsory governmental services, P < 0.031 and B = 2.356), overall work experience between 5 and 10 years (P < 0.031 and B = 2.356), and the attitude toward teamwork (P < 0.001 and B = 0.350) could significantly predict nurses’ attitude toward IPC [adjusted R2 = 0.446, [Table 4]].
|Table 4: Results of regression analysis to investigate variable predicting the nurses’ attitude toward interprofessional collaboration|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In the present study, nurses possessed more than 81% of the score of attitude toward IPC. This finding indicates that nurses have a good attitude toward IPC. This finding is consistent with the results of earlier studies in South Africa, Iran,, Palestine, Australia, and Egypt. A study in Ethiopia has also reported that nurses had a favorable attitude toward IPC despite dissatisfaction with physicians’ collaboration. However, a study in Italy reported that nurses had a negative attitude toward IPC, which might be attributable to the dominant traditional hierarchical structure prevailing in clinical settings. Some studies in Cyprus, United Kingdom, and Ireland have also reported that nurses working in ICUs and hospital wards other than EDs reported negative-to-moderate attitude toward nurse–physician collaboration., Although the instruments used in different studies and the work climate of different wards are not the same, and therefore, the results of studies might not be precisely comparable, these studies show that nurses work setting might have an important effect on their attitude toward IPC.,
In the present study, nurses of higher age showed a better attitude toward IPC. This finding was in contrast to the result of a study in Shiraz, in which nurses’ lower age was associated with a better attitude toward IPC. On the other hand, an earlier study in Tabriz found no significant correlation between nurses’ age and their attitude toward IPC.
In the current study, nurses with more appropriate employment status and those with more work experience showed a better attitude toward IPC. These findings were in line with the results of Pakpour et al. how studied nurses’ viewpoint on nurse–physician interprofessional relationships. However, two studies in the United States and Iran reported opposite findings. Nonetheless, it seems that, with increasing work experience and improving the employment status of nurses, their attitude toward IPC will improve. However, further studies in this area can help clarify these relationships.
We found no significant relationship between nurses’ attitude toward IPC and their other characteristics such as work experience in other specialized wards, having extra shifts, type of shift, marital status, and the number of their children that was consistent with the results of some previous studies.,,
The present study showed that nurses had also a positive attitude toward teamwork. This finding is in agreement with a number of studies in hospitals of Kerman, Australia, and Scotland. The study also revealed a strong direct correlation between emergency nurses’ attitudes toward IPC and teamwork so that a better attitude toward IPC increased the nurses’ inclination to teamwork. Regression analysis also showed that, attitude toward teamwork could significantly predict nurses’ attitudes toward IPC. Teamwork and IPC are the cornerstones of quality care and patient safety and require common goals and mutual understanding between nurses and other health-care professionals – especially physicians,, without such an understanding, it is hard to achieve the health-care goals. As Santos et al. and Vafadar et al. reported, although IPC and teamwork are close constructs, understanding IPC and its philosophy, as well as giving superiority to patient safety are the core prerequisites for the enhancement of teamwork.
Among the variables entered in the regression analysis, only the participants’ employment status of compulsory governmental services, overall work experience of 1–5 years, and the attitude toward teamwork could significantly predict nurses’ attitude toward IPC. Further studies are suggested to investigate the factors affecting nurses’ attitude toward IPC.
The current study had limitations to consider when using its results including small sample size, the mere survey of nurses’ attitudes, probability of inaccuracy in answering questions due to time constraints in the ED, and the use of a convenience sampling method. Therefore, further studies with larger and random samples are recommended.
| Conclusion|| |
The findings of the present study demonstrated that the attitude of emergency nurses toward IPC was at an optimal level. Nurses have also a positive attitude toward teamwork. Nurses’ belief in IPC and especially belief in nurse–physician collaboration plays an important role in providing quality care and keeping patient safety in EDs. Joint in-service workshops on the philosophy and principles of IPC and teamwork for nurses and physicians working in EDs can further strengthen the IPC. Furthermore, contents in these areas should be strengthened in nursing and medicine curricula.
This article was derived from a Master’s thesis supported by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. The authors would like to acknowledge the research deputy at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for their support. We also are thankful for all nurses who participated in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was financially supported by research deputy at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Ethics code: IR. TBZMED. REC.1397.685).
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Nair DM, Fitzpatrick JJ, McNulty R, Click ER, Glembocki MM. Frequency of nurse-physician collaborative behaviors in an acute care hospital. J Interprof Care 2012;26:115-20.
Varjoshanin J, Hosseini M, Khankeh H, Ahmadi F. Competency and cultural similarity: Underlying factors of an effective interprofessional communication in the emergency ward: A qualitative study. J Qual Res Health Sci 2014;3:292-303.
Farhadi A, Elahi N, Jalali R. Nurses’ and physicians’ experiences of the pattern of their professional relationship with each other: A phenomenological study. J Qual Res Health Sci 2017;6:201-13.
Di Prospero L, Bhimji-Hewitt S. Teaching collaboration: A retrospective look at incorporating teamwork into an interprofessional curriculum. J Med Imaging Radiat Sci 2011;42:118-23.
Ranjbari P, Alimohammadzadeh Kh, Hosseini SM. The relationship of physician-nurses interaction with patient safety incidents in Amir-Al-Momenin Hospital in Tehran. Manage Strateg Health Syst 2018;3:240-8.
Matziou V, Vlahioti E, Perdikaris P, Matziou T, Megapanou E, Petsios K. Physician and nursing perceptions concerning interprofessional communication and collaboration. J Interprof Care 2014;28:526-33.
Azimi Lolaty H, Ashktorab T, Bagheri Nesami M, Bagherzadeh Ladari R. Experience of professional communication among nurses working in educational hospitals: A phenomenological study. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2011;21:108-25.
Kilner E, Sheppard LA. The role of teamwork and communication in the emergency department: A systematic review. Int Emerg Nurs 2010;18:127-37.
Hawkins RE, Lawson LE, Starr SR, Borkan J, Gonzalo JD. Health Systems Science e-Book. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier;2017.
Reeves S, Xyrichis A, Zwarenstein M. Teamwork, collaboration, coordination, and networking: Why we need to distinguish between different types of interprofessional practice. J Interprof Care 2018;32:1-3.
Bochatay N. Discussing teamwork in health care: From interprofessional collaboration to coordination and cooperation. Health Info Libr J 2019;36:367-71.
Danna D, Bernard M, Schaubhut R, Mathews P. Experiences of nurse leaders surviving Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Nurs Health Sci 2010;12:9-13.
Salas E, Dickinson TL, Converse SA, Tannenbaum SI. Toward an understanding of team performance and training. In: Swezey RW, Salas E, editors. Teams: Their Training and Performance. Norwood: Ablex;1992. p. 3-29.
Ribeiro EM, Pires D, Blank VL. Theoretical review of the work process in health care used to analyze work in the Family Health Program in Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 2004;20:438-46.
Masoomi R, Yamani N. A review on interprofessional education in health professionals’ training. Iran J Med Educ 2012;11:1231-40.
Sterchi LS. Perceptions that affect physician-nurse collaboration in the perioperative setting. AORN J 2007;86:45-57.
Le Roux L. Nurses’ and physicians’ attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration in private hospital critical care units. A thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Nursing. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2014.
Snelgrove S, Hughes D. Interprofessional relations between doctors and nurses: Perspectives from South Wales. J Adv Nurs 2000;31:661-7.
Cotter PT. Clinical Autonomy and Nurse/Physician Collaboration in Emergency Nurses. DN Thesis,University College Cork;2013.
Pakpour V, Hojat M, Salehi H, Rahmani A, Shahim A, Mohammadi R. [Viewpoint of nurses on interprofessional relationship between nurses and doctors]. Hayat 2014; 20:74-85.
Zeyghami Mohammadi S, Haghighi S. The association between nurses’ communication skills and nurse-physician relationship and collaboration in Alborz Hospital of Karaj in 2008. Med Sci J 2009;19:121-7.
Rostami H, Rahmani A, Ghahramanian A. The viewpoint of nurses about professional relationship between nurses and physicians. J Res Dev Nurs Midwifery 2010;7:63-71.
Jasemi M, Rahmani A, Aghakhani N, Hosseini F, Eghtedar S. Nurses and physicians’ viewpoint toward interprofessional collaboration. Iran J Nurs 2013;26:1-10.
Casacchia M, Bianchini V, Mazza M, Pollice R, Roncone R. Acute stress reactions and associated factors in the help-seekers after the L’Aquila earthquake. Psychopathology 2013;46:120-30.
Shaghayeghfard B, Derakhshan Rad SA, Kamali Sarvestani F. Attitude survey of physiatrist and rehabilitation professionals towards team working process in the city of Shiraz. J Res Rehabil Sci 2012;8:1319-27.
Hojat M, Nasca TJ, Cohen MJ, Fields SK, Rattner SL, Griffiths M, et al
. Attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration: A cross-cultural study of male and female physicians and nurses in the United States and Mexico. Nurs Res 2001;50:123-8.
Baker DP, Krokos K, Amodeo A. TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire Manual. Washington, DC: American Institute for Research;2008.
Najafi M, Keshmiri F, Najafi M, Shirazi M. Assessment of validity and reliability of team STEPPS teamwork attitudes questionnaire (T-TAQ) in Iran. Payavard 2014;7:389-98.
Hekmat SN, Dehnavieh R, Rahimisadegh R, Kohpeima V, Jahromi JK. Team attitude evaluation: An evaluation in hospital committees. Mater Sociomed 2015;27:429-33.
Zakerimoghadam M, Ghiyasvandian S, Kazemnejad Leili A. Nurse-physician collaboration: The attitudes of baccalaureate nursing students at tehran university of medical sciences. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015;17:e23247.
Elsous A, Radwan M, Mohsen S. Nurses and physicians attitudes toward nurse-physician collaboration: A survey from Gaza Strip, Palestine. Nurs Res Pract 2017;2017:7406278.
Chaboyer WP, Patterson E. Australian hospital generalist and critical care nurses’ perceptions of doctor-nurse collaboration. Nurs Health Sci 2001;3:73-9.
Sayed K, Sleem W. Nurse-physician collaboration: A comparative study of the attitudes of nurses and physicians at Mansoura University Hospital. Life Sci J 2011;8:140-6.
Amsalu E, Boru B, Getahun F, Tulu B. Attitudes of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician collaboration in northwest Ethiopia: A hospital based cross-sectional study. BMC Nurs 2014;13:37.
Karanikola MN, Albarran JW, Drigo E, Giannakopoulou M, Kalafati M, Mpouzika M, et al
. Moral distress, autonomy and nurse-physician collaboration among intensive care unit nurses in Italy. J Nurs Manag 2014;22:472-84.
Georgiou E, Papathanassoglou ED, Pavlakis A. Nurse-physiciancollaboration and associations with perceived autonomy in Cypriot critical care nurses. Nurs Crit Care 2017;22:29-39.
Copnell B, Johnston L, Harrison D, Wilson A, Robson A, Mulcahy C, et al
. Doctors’ and nurses’ perceptions of interdisciplinary collaboration in the NICU, and the impact of a neonatal nurse practitioner model of practice. J Clin Nurs 2004;13:105-13.
Pasyar N, Sharif F, Rambod M. Nurses and physicians’ collaborative behaviors in intensive care units. Sadra Med Sci J 2017;5:239-49.
Barrere C, Ellis P. Changing attitudes among nurses and physicians: A step toward collaboration. J Healthc Qual 2002;24:9-15.
Flin R, Yule S, McKenzie L, Paterson-Brown S, Maran N. Attitudes to teamwork and safety in the operating theatre. Surgeon 2006;4:145-51.
Mahmoodian F, Jafari S, Keshmiri M, Azimi A, Vosoughi M. Nurses’ experiences about the challenges of nurse-physician professional relationships, in 1390. Sadra Med Sci J 2014;2:31-42.
Santos JL, Lima MA, Pestana AL, Colomé IC, Erdmann AL. Strategies used by nurses to promote teamwork in an emergency room. Rev Gaucha Enferm 2016;37:e50178.
Vafadar Z, Vanaki Z, Ebadi A. Interprofessional education a response to health system challenges. Iran J Med Educ 2014;14:148-64.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]